Volume 5 (2020-21)

Each volume of Journal of Cultural Marketing Strategy consists of two biannual issues, published in print and online. The articles published in Volume 5 are listed below.

Volume 5 Number 2

  • Editorial
    Jake Beniflah, Publishing Editor, Journal of Cultural Marketing Strategy
  • The chief human resources officer is the new chief financial officer
    Ken Gronbach, President, KGC Direct

    This paper reviews several things chief human resource officers must consider to accommodate the requirements of an increasingly diverse workforce. Organisations that do not emphasise the importance of human resources by hiring a chief human resource officer (CHRO) will struggle and will probably fail. The paper encourages readers to remember: demographics precipitates economics.
    Keywords: demographics, diversity, human resources, immigration, talent pool, birth rate, population, workforce

  • Empowered storytelling: An examination of empowerment in storytelling and its impact on millennials
    Tyrha M. Lindsey-Warren, Clinical Assistant Professor of Marketing, Baylor University and Christine Ringler, Assistant Professor of Marketing, Culverhouse School of Business

    Storytelling is a powerful way to help people connect and make sense of the world. As brands continue to search for ways to make an emotional connection with millennials, being able to articulate a story that encourages millennial consumers to be better, as well as live to their fullest potential, is paramount to building sustainable connections that invite brand loyalty. This paper examines narrative transportation theory — the process by which consumers become absorbed or lost in a story. Specifically, the research explores storytelling in advertisements that exude the emotion of empowerment and its impact on millennials. Using qualitative design and inquiry, the work uncovers insights as to why narrative transportation works and why it is has such an emotional impact.
    Keywords: empowerment, storytelling, millennials, advertising, branding, narrative transportation, consumer behaviour, emotional connection

  • Centring anti-Black racism: Developing racial knowledge as stance
    Trudi L. Perkins, Founder and CEO, Momentum Enterprises

    This paper expands on prior discussion on the use of inquiry as stance to explore in more depth the pedagogical practices that emerge from anti-racist research in education. The paper draws on existing literature as a basis for discussing the connection between the use of inquiry in the development of anti-racist awareness and the ability to operationalise the practice around such specialised learning. The aim of this examination is to determine how inquiry as stance can benefit the development of racial knowledge. The paper asserts that having an understanding of stance provides a feasible starting point for conceptualising anti-Black racism as a specific embodiment of generalised racism. It further asserts that examining the processes associated with the development of an individual racial stance can help educators advance toward operationalising anti-racist education. The paper builds on previous research into the relationship between a racial knowledge as stance framework, and the potential use of inquiry to fill a significant gap in understanding how educators interact with their own knowledge of race, and then learn to facilitate this learning for others. Recommendations for avenues for future research on antiracism and anti-racist education are also discussed.
    Keywords: education, racism, anti-Blackness, training, knowledge, stance, operationalise, inquiry

  • Blackface sweaters and pizza with chopsticks: Problem cases and strategies for converting cultural appropriation into cultural appreciation in the fashion industry
    Domenique Jones, Doctoral Candidate and Michelle Childs, Assistant Professor, University of Tennessee

    The fashion industry has been criticised for its practices of cultural appropriation and disregard for the cultures of Black, indigenous and other people of colour. In an age of instant criticism promulgated through social media, viral condemnation is becoming increasingly powerful. As Western cultures focus on the importance of cultural appreciation, including issues centred on equity, diversity and inclusion, it is vitally important to address marginalised groups correctly. This paper therefore proposes a shift toward respectful cultural appreciation, paying homage and giving credit to original cultures. Based on a review of popular culture and academic literature, the paper highlights issues relating to cultural appreciation in fashion and presents opportunities for fashion and acting against cultural appropriation. The study also discusses specific examples of cultural appropriation (ie taking pieces of another culture and portraying them as one’s own) and cultural appreciation (ie respectfully paying tribute to and highlighting the beauty of another culture through marketing and fashion). These examples have practical application for businesses seeking to avoid potential consumer backlash and become leaders in the fashion industry.
    Keywords: cultural appropriation, cultural appreciation, fashion, marketing, diversity, racism

  • Building a multicultural organisation: A conceptual model for organisational change in the 21st century
    Jake Beniflah, Executive Director, Center for Multicultural Science and Julie Veloz, Vice President, Diversity Intelligence & Strategy, Interpublic Group of Companies

    Over the next 50 years, several factors are expected to change the composition and size of the US labour market, most notably: (1) the growing number of baby boomers retiring from the workforce, (2) the stabilisation of women’s participation in the workforce, and (3) increasing racial and ethnic diversity. With higher population growth, fertility and workforce participation rates, the US multicultural population is projected to account for a much larger proportion of the US workforce in the decades to come. The degree to which corporate America is able to maximise productivity and manage cultural diversity effectively will not only impact workforce participation, but also economic output. This paper proposes a conceptual framework for cultural diversity to help corporations manage their increasingly diverse workforce and help transform their companies into multicultural organisations to better serve their diverse employees — and their consumers. The paper outlines a robust toolkit, arguing that companies must take a comprehensive approach to address the lack of diversity in corporate America rather than launch ‘diversity and inclusion’ initiatives, as many have recently done. Future research and discussions on this topic are warranted.
    Keywords: multicultural organisation, multiculturalism, organisational change, competitive advantage, cultural diversity, diversity and inclusion, management

  • Is fear of missing out (FOMO) a cultural construct? Investigating FOMO from a marketing perspective
    Faren Karimkhan, Doctoral candidate, Florida State University and Sindy Chapa, Director, Center for Hispanic Marketing Communication

    Fear of missing out (FOMO) is an ongoing phenomenon. It is particularly important in the field of marketing as it is linked to impulsive shopping behaviour and other consequences that can affect the brand–consumer relationship. Existing literature suggests that FOMO is influenced by social media consumption, the level of collectivism versus individualism, and a sense of belonging. The present study deepens understanding of FOMO by examining its associations with social media consumption both in English and in consumers’ ethnic languages, collectivism versus individualism, and ethnic identity. The data were obtained via an online survey of 3,286 respondents of different ethnicities (non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, African American, Asian American). The results show that while consumption of English-language social media is not significantly related to FOMO, the consumption of social media in other languages appears to be a significant predictor of FOMO. The study also finds that collectivism and ethnic identity appear to have a strong correlation with FOMO and can be used as predictors of FOMO. These findings support the idea that FOMO is highly cultural. The paper goes on to discuss how these conclusions contribute to the literature, along with the managerial implications of the findings.
    Keywords: FOMO, fear of missing out, social media, online behaviour, online marketing, social media marketing, cultural dimensions

  • Multiculturalism needs more than openness to diversity: Updating the Openness to Diversity and Challenge scale for increased inclusion
    Eliane Karsaklian, Clinical Professor, University of Illinois at Chicago

    This paper describes a case study conducted with graduate students in a large, culturally-diverse university and suggests the addition of a more contemporary facet to the Openness to Diversity and Challenge (ODC) scale created by Pascarella and colleagues in 1996. The first phase of the study entailed observing a group of 24 graduate students enrolled on an elective multicultural marketing course in 2019, followed by a second observation of the same course in 2020, this time counting 22 students. During this phase, when students were asked to choose an ethnic community to study, the majority of students selected their own community rather than explore an alien culture. The second phase of the research entailed analysing the narratives contained in the students’ assignments. This phase provided insight into the reasons behind their choices and improved understanding about how contemporary students experience openness to diversity. Prior to this study, it seemed reasonable to assume that multiculturalism and ODC walked hand in hand. Based on the study findings, however, this paper argues that the others-oriented approach of the ODC scale would benefit from the integration of a self-oriented symmetrical side in order to better suit contemporary needs. The findings of this research are highly relevant because young adults must be open to diversity in order to succeed in contemporary society.
    Keywords: openness to diversity, community, symmetry, multiculturalism, education, culture, curiosity

Volume 5 Number 1

  • Editorial
    Jake Beniflah, Executive Director, Center for Multicultural Science
  • Interview: COVID-19, the outlook for corporations, and the changing demographic landscape: An interview with Chiqui Cartagena
    Jake Beniflah, Executive Director, Center for Multicultural Science and Chiqui Cartagena, Chief Marketing Officer, The Conference Board

    Founded in 1916, The Conference Board is a nonpartisan, not-for-profit, member-driven think tank that delivers trusted insights into what lies ahead. In the following interview with Chiqui Cartagena, the organisation’s Chief Marketing Officer and Leader of its Center for Marketing and Communications, Ms Cartagena discusses the most recent consumer confidence measures and offers key insights on how corporations have responded to the economic volatility created by the COVID-19 pandemic. Ms Cartagena also shares what The Conference Board is doing to prepare for a multicultural majority in the USA, and what it means on a personal level to be the first Latina Chief Marketing Officer of this powerful think tank.
    Keywords: The Conference Board, COVID-19, consumer confidence, multicultural marketing

  • Research papers: Exploring the use of shock advertising by for-profit and nonprofit organisations in China
    Shuo Yan, PhD candidate and Sindy Chapa, Associate Professor, School of Communication, Florida State University

    This paper investigates the use of shock advertising by both for-profit and nonprofit organisations in China. Specifically, the study assesses the effectiveness of shock advertising in terms of attitude toward the advertisement (Aad), attitude toward the brand (Ab), and behavioural intention. The results indicate that Chinese consumers held more positive Ab when shock advertising was used by a nonprofit organisation rather than by a for-profit organisation, but their Ab was more positive toward non-shock ads by both of the organizations. In addition, shock advertising used by a nonprofit organisation elicited higher behavioural intention than other types of advertising/organisation combinations. No difference was found in Aad when shock advertising was used by for-profit or nonprofit organisations.
    Keywords: shock advertising, sentiment, behavioural intention, for-profit, nonprofit, Chinese consumers

  • Is corporate America ready for a multicultural America? A dynamic capabilities perspective
    Jake Beniflah, Executive Director, Center for Multicultural Science

    The USA is projected to become a minority-majority nation by 2043, with the multicultural population surpassing whites as the new majority for the first time in history. These significant shifts are likely to transform marketing (and business) as we know it. Drawing on the traditional resource-based view and dynamic capabilities theory extensions, this paper puts forth a conceptual framework based on two constructs — market orientation and marketing capabilities — which have been shown to drive superior firm performance. The challenge in prescribing a fixed solution across corporate America as a whole is that all corporations do not share the same challenges in the marketplace, making a one-size-fits-all strategy ineffective. The proposed conceptual model is flexible in that it measures a company’s market orientation and marketing capabilities across different target audiences and industries. Leading corporations in the 21st century will need to develop a set of dynamic capabilities to address an ever-changing demography and business landscape. This model can help assess whether corporations are ready to compete in a marketplace where multicultural consumers are the new mainstream. Future research is warranted given the dearth of papers in this promising area.
    Keywords: dynamic capabilities theory, resource-based view, multicultural marketing, marketing, market orientation, marketing capabilities

  • From K-pop to Korean products: An investigation into the mediating effects of imitation and attitudes toward Korean culture and products
    Ruonan Zhang, Visiting Assistant Professor, Rollins College, Nicky Chang Bi, Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska, Papaa Kodzi, Undergraduate, Alana Goodwin, Undergraduate, Klaudia Wasilewski, Undergraduate and Eiko McCurdy, Undergraduate, Rollins College

    This study investigates how the consumption of South Korean popular culture (K-pop) media content influences the behavioural intention of international audiences with respect to the purchase of South Korean products. Based on a survey of international K-pop audiences, the authors examine the mediating effects of imitation intention, attitude towards Korean culture and attitude towards Korean products. The results reveal that both frequency and the number of hours of K-pop consumption significantly predicted participants’ intention to imitate their favourite K-pop celebrity, while attitude towards Korean culture and products was significantly predicted by frequency of K-pop consumption but not the number of hours of consumption. At the same time, attitude towards Korean products was found to be a strong predictor of international audiences’ purchase intention, while attitude towards Korean culture was found to be a weak predictor and imitation intention was found to be an ineffective predictor of intention to purchase Korean products. This study clarifies, at the international level, the influence of K-pop media content consumption on the intention to purchase Korean products. In this way, it confirms and explains how K-pop acts as a key cultural marketing strategy for South Korea in international markets.
    Keywords: Korean popular culture (K-pop), imitation intention, Korean culture, Korean products, international cultural marketing

  • Marketing tobacco products to communities of colour and a much-needed plan for change
    Richard Greggory Johnson III, Chair, Department of Public and Nonprofit Administration, University of San Francisco, Hugo Renderos, Lecturer of Criminal Justice and Public Administration Purdue University Fort Wayne and Theresa Kaimanu, Associate Professor, Portland State University

    This paper takes up the issue of tobacco marketing and explores its history via the lens of three communities of colour: Native American, Central American and African American. The paper concludes with substantive activities and policies that could lead to the elimination and/or reduction of the marketing of tobacco to communities of colour.
    Keywords: tobacco, marketing, discrimination, cancer, healthcare

  • An evaluation of AT&T social marketing delivery modes aimed at teen smartphone use while driving
    Francene Scott Diehl, Director of Safety and Compliance, Chesapeake Utilities Corporation, Luz Stella Marín, Assistant Professor, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, and Majed Zreiqat, Associate Professor, Indiana University of Pennsylvania

    Effective social marketing to teens may contribute to reducing the likelihood of death behind the wheel. This study examined whether the virtual reality (VR) technology utilised as the primary messaging delivery mode in AT&T’s ‘It Can Wait’ social marketing campaign has had any impact on teens’ beliefs and behaviours regarding smartphone use while driving. Students’ beliefs and behaviours were evaluated using Ajzen and Fishbein’s theory of planned behaviour (TPB). The study also evaluated whether any TPB construct scores were predictors of behaviour intentions, and whether behaviour intentions, perceived behaviour control and type of AT&T delivery modes were predictors of future smartphone driving behaviour, and finally, determined teen preference for one type of social marketing delivery mode. The study found that the type of delivery mode did not significantly change the TPB construct belief scores. However, when comparing VR, video and PowerPoint lecture delivery modes, teens displayed a significant preference for VR social marketing. Teens’ TPB normative beliefs, attitude beliefs and perceived behaviour control beliefs associated with smartphone use while driving were predictors of behaviour intentions, and behaviour intention scores were a predictor of future driving behaviour.
    Keywords: virtual reality, smartphone, social marketing, teen behaviour intention, AT&T, ‘It Can Wait’

  • Examining rivalry and outgroup derogation among underrepresented college students
    Cody T. Havard, Director, Bureau of Sport and Leisure Commerce, Rhema D. Fuller, Director of Graduate Studies and Carol A. Silkes, Undergraduate Program Coordinator, University of Memphis

    As little is known about how fans other than European American males react to rivalry, the current study investigated rivalry among college students who identified as African American, Latinx or Asian American. To analyse how these three underrepresented groups reacted to rival teams and schools, the study authors identified both male and female students from Power Five or Group of Five institutions in attendance at various National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I competition events who self-identified as meeting this demographic. The results show that male African American and Asian American students reported significantly higher identification and more negativity toward their rival schools than did their female counterparts. Additionally, attending a Power Five school influenced identification and reactions to rival schools for all three underrepresented groups. The paper goes on to discuss the implications of the study and potential avenues for future research.
    Keywords: rivalry, underrepresented fans, African American, Hispanic, Asian American, Latinx, fan behaviour, in-group bias