Volume 5 (2020-21)

Each volume of Journal of Cultural Marketing Strategy consists of two biannual issues, published in print and online. Articles scheduled for Volume 5 are available to view on the 'Forthcoming content' page. The articles published in Volume 5 are listed below.

Volume 5 Number 1

  • Editorial
    Jake Beniflah, Executive Director, Center for Multicultural Science
  • Interview: COVID-19, the outlook for corporations, and the changing demographic landscape: An interview with Chiqui Cartagena
    Jake Beniflah, Executive Director, Center for Multicultural Science and Chiqui Cartagena, Chief Marketing Officer, The Conference Board

    Founded in 1916, The Conference Board is a nonpartisan, not-for-profit, member-driven think tank that delivers trusted insights into what lies ahead. In the following interview with Chiqui Cartagena, the organisation’s Chief Marketing Officer and Leader of its Center for Marketing and Communications, Ms Cartagena discusses the most recent consumer confidence measures and offers key insights on how corporations have responded to the economic volatility created by the COVID-19 pandemic. Ms Cartagena also shares what The Conference Board is doing to prepare for a multicultural majority in the USA, and what it means on a personal level to be the first Latina Chief Marketing Officer of this powerful think tank.
    Keywords: The Conference Board, COVID-19, consumer confidence, multicultural marketing

  • Research papers: Exploring the use of shock advertising by for-profit and nonprofit organisations in China
    Shuo Yan, PhD candidate and Sindy Chapa, Associate Professor, School of Communication, Florida State University

    This paper investigates the use of shock advertising by both for-profit and nonprofit organisations in China. Specifically, the study assesses the effectiveness of shock advertising in terms of attitude toward the advertisement (Aad), attitude toward the brand (Ab), and behavioural intention. The results indicate that Chinese consumers held more positive Ab when shock advertising was used by a nonprofit organisation rather than by a for-profit organisation, but their Ab was more positive toward non-shock ads by both of the organizations. In addition, shock advertising used by a nonprofit organisation elicited higher behavioural intention than other types of advertising/organisation combinations. No difference was found in Aad when shock advertising was used by for-profit or nonprofit organisations.
    Keywords: shock advertising, sentiment, behavioural intention, for-profit, nonprofit, Chinese consumers

  • Is corporate America ready for a multicultural America? A dynamic capabilities perspective
    Jake Beniflah, Executive Director, Center for Multicultural Science

    The USA is projected to become a minority-majority nation by 2043, with the multicultural population surpassing whites as the new majority for the first time in history. These significant shifts are likely to transform marketing (and business) as we know it. Drawing on the traditional resource-based view and dynamic capabilities theory extensions, this paper puts forth a conceptual framework based on two constructs — market orientation and marketing capabilities — which have been shown to drive superior firm performance. The challenge in prescribing a fixed solution across corporate America as a whole is that all corporations do not share the same challenges in the marketplace, making a one-size-fits-all strategy ineffective. The proposed conceptual model is flexible in that it measures a company’s market orientation and marketing capabilities across different target audiences and industries. Leading corporations in the 21st century will need to develop a set of dynamic capabilities to address an ever-changing demography and business landscape. This model can help assess whether corporations are ready to compete in a marketplace where multicultural consumers are the new mainstream. Future research is warranted given the dearth of papers in this promising area.
    Keywords: dynamic capabilities theory, resource-based view, multicultural marketing, marketing, market orientation, marketing capabilities

  • From K-pop to Korean products: An investigation into the mediating effects of imitation and attitudes toward Korean culture and products
    Ruonan Zhang, Visiting Assistant Professor, Rollins College, Nicky Chang Bi, Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska, Papaa Kodzi, Undergraduate, Alana Goodwin, Undergraduate, Klaudia Wasilewski, Undergraduate and Eiko McCurdy, Undergraduate, Rollins College

    This study investigates how the consumption of South Korean popular culture (K-pop) media content influences the behavioural intention of international audiences with respect to the purchase of South Korean products. Based on a survey of international K-pop audiences, the authors examine the mediating effects of imitation intention, attitude towards Korean culture and attitude towards Korean products. The results reveal that both frequency and the number of hours of K-pop consumption significantly predicted participants’ intention to imitate their favourite K-pop celebrity, while attitude towards Korean culture and products was significantly predicted by frequency of K-pop consumption but not the number of hours of consumption. At the same time, attitude towards Korean products was found to be a strong predictor of international audiences’ purchase intention, while attitude towards Korean culture was found to be a weak predictor and imitation intention was found to be an ineffective predictor of intention to purchase Korean products. This study clarifies, at the international level, the influence of K-pop media content consumption on the intention to purchase Korean products. In this way, it confirms and explains how K-pop acts as a key cultural marketing strategy for South Korea in international markets.
    Keywords: Korean popular culture (K-pop), imitation intention, Korean culture, Korean products, international cultural marketing

  • Marketing tobacco products to communities of colour and a much-needed plan for change
    Richard Greggory Johnson III, Chair, Department of Public and Nonprofit Administration, University of San Francisco, Hugo Renderos, Lecturer of Criminal Justice and Public Administration Purdue University Fort Wayne and Theresa Kaimanu, Associate Professor, Portland State University

    This paper takes up the issue of tobacco marketing and explores its history via the lens of three communities of colour: Native American, Central American and African American. The paper concludes with substantive activities and policies that could lead to the elimination and/or reduction of the marketing of tobacco to communities of colour.
    Keywords: tobacco, marketing, discrimination, cancer, healthcare

  • An evaluation of AT&T social marketing delivery modes aimed at teen smartphone use while driving
    Francene Scott Diehl, Director of Safety and Compliance, Chesapeake Utilities Corporation, Luz Stella Marín, Assistant Professor, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, and Majed Zreiqat, Associate Professor, Indiana University of Pennsylvania

    Effective social marketing to teens may contribute to reducing the likelihood of death behind the wheel. This study examined whether the virtual reality (VR) technology utilised as the primary messaging delivery mode in AT&T’s ‘It Can Wait’ social marketing campaign has had any impact on teens’ beliefs and behaviours regarding smartphone use while driving. Students’ beliefs and behaviours were evaluated using Ajzen and Fishbein’s theory of planned behaviour (TPB). The study also evaluated whether any TPB construct scores were predictors of behaviour intentions, and whether behaviour intentions, perceived behaviour control and type of AT&T delivery modes were predictors of future smartphone driving behaviour, and finally, determined teen preference for one type of social marketing delivery mode. The study found that the type of delivery mode did not significantly change the TPB construct belief scores. However, when comparing VR, video and PowerPoint lecture delivery modes, teens displayed a significant preference for VR social marketing. Teens’ TPB normative beliefs, attitude beliefs and perceived behaviour control beliefs associated with smartphone use while driving were predictors of behaviour intentions, and behaviour intention scores were a predictor of future driving behaviour.
    Keywords: virtual reality, smartphone, social marketing, teen behaviour intention, AT&T, ‘It Can Wait’

  • Examining rivalry and outgroup derogation among underrepresented college students
    Cody T. Havard, Director, Bureau of Sport and Leisure Commerce, Rhema D. Fuller, Director of Graduate Studies and Carol A. Silkes, Undergraduate Program Coordinator, University of Memphis

    As little is known about how fans other than European American males react to rivalry, the current study investigated rivalry among college students who identified as African American, Latinx or Asian American. To analyse how these three underrepresented groups reacted to rival teams and schools, the study authors identified both male and female students from Power Five or Group of Five institutions in attendance at various National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I competition events who self-identified as meeting this demographic. The results show that male African American and Asian American students reported significantly higher identification and more negativity toward their rival schools than did their female counterparts. Additionally, attending a Power Five school influenced identification and reactions to rival schools for all three underrepresented groups. The paper goes on to discuss the implications of the study and potential avenues for future research.
    Keywords: rivalry, underrepresented fans, African American, Hispanic, Asian American, Latinx, fan behaviour, in-group bias